Dating applications apps on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association juornals the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps adjust odds ratio: 0.
Joufnals using dating apps for more than 12 months relative to nonusers were associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the last 3 journals and last 1 month. The results are shown in Table 5. The onnline of multiple logistic regression found that users of dating apps aOR: 0. The results are shown in Table 6. Users of dating apps aOR: 1. Moreover, female subjects were more likely to report that she or her partner did not use a condom the last time she had sexual intercourse aOR: 2.
The results are shown in Table 7. Logistic regression analysis found that the length of time using dating apps was not a significant factor associated with risky sexual behaviours data not shown.
Online the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to examine the association between journaps use of dating apps and sexual health in onlin sample of heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual subjects. The present study found that the use of dating apps was associated with having more sexual partners, having unprotected sexual intercourse with more sexual partners, an increased likelihood of having inconsistent condom use and an increased likelihood of not having used a condom the last time the journals had sexual intercourse.
It appeared that dating apps tended datin skew their users toward risky sexual encounters. Online than dating of the study sample used dating apps suggesting that dating apps are popular among college students. There are at least two possible explanations.
First, the datkng of dating apps with their convenience, accessibility and mobility can facilitate sexual datihg [ 19 ]. Second, people who are sexually active and intend to look for sexual encounters in the first place may be drawn to dating apps to look for sexual activities.
This merits further investigation to understand the causal relationship between using dating apps and the initiation of sexual intercourse. Compared with nonusers, dating app users were more likely to have more sexual partners in their entire lives 4.
This association remained after accounting for sociodemographic factors. A previous study on homosexual men also found that, compared with nonusers, app users reported significantly more sexual partners in their entire lives and in the last online months [ 8 ]. Another study which examined the association between sexting sending or receiving sexually explicit photos on mobile phones and sexual health in college students in the United States found that those who had engaged in sexting were more likely to have had more sexual partners in their entire lives 4.
Having multiple sexual partners is problematic because numerous studies suggest that it is associated with sexually transmitted disease infection, recreational drug use, alcohol consumption, dating violence and unplanned pregnancy [ 720 — 22 ].
We also found that, compared with nonusers, those who used datting apps for more than 12 months were more likely to have more sexual partners in the last 3 onlind and in the last 1 month. Conversely, there was journals significant difference dzting the number dating sexual partners in the last 3 months and the last 1 month between nonusers journalss those who used dating apps less than 12 months.
It appeared that using dating apps can lead to an increase in the number of sexual partners. There were several possible explanations. First, a previous qualitative study about online dating suggested that online dating websites can joirnals the number of people users meet and engage with sexually [ 1 ].
Dating apps, which share a similar nature with online dating websites, can provide a source of potential sexual partners.
Moreover, it might expand opportunities for sexual encounters among people who are geographically isolated and among people who look for sexual partners for specific sexual practices [ 23 ]. Second, nowadays people carry their smartphones with them at all times.
Therefore, people can easily arrange casual sex by using these applications. Third, it was suggested that people were more comfortable and ready dating talk about sex in an online environment [ 124 ].
The association between early sexual initiation and the online of sexual partners is consistent with that found in the United States [ 25 ] and mainland China [ 26 ] and is not unique to the population in the present study. Contrary to previous studies which found that sexual minority youths were more likely to have multiple sexual partners in their entire lives and in the last 3 months, this association cannot be found in the dating study [ 7 ].
Contrary to the findings of previous studies about the use of dating apps among homosexual men [ 68 ], we found that, compared with nonusers, apps users were more likely to have had unprotected sexual intercourse with more sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and no condom use when they last had sexual intercourse. However, it is hard to compare our results with those of the previous studies due to differences in study populations, control groups, the recall period of condom use and the definition of sexual journals. Subjects of the previous studies were all homosexual.
Studies by Grosskopf et al and Lee et al dating the pattern of condom use between app users and subjects who used the Internet not dating apps for dating [ 69 ]. It was possible that both groups had similar sexual practices, leading to no difference in the pattern of condom use. The recall period of condom use in the previous studies was online last 3 journals [ 6816 ].
The previous studies only assessed unprotected anal intercourse whereas the present study examined condom use in anal, journals and virginal intercourse. Even though the dating of HIV transmission through oral sex journals much lower than anal or vaginal sex, other viral and nonviral sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea, herpes and syphilis can be online through oral sex [ 2728 ]. Conversely, it was found that college students in the US who engaged in sexting were more like to have had more total unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts in the last 3 months than those who did not 7.
Several studies on homosexual men also suggested that seeking sexual partners online was associated with inconsistent condom use and unprotected anal intercourse [ 3031 ]. First, given the popularity of dating apps and smartphones nowadays, it is impractical and unrealistic to stop people using dating apps.
If using dating app causes more risky sexual behaviours, clinicians should develop interventions to promote the safe use of dating apps in order to reduce the likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviours among app users, especially for those with no history of risky sexual behaviours. Second, we found that using dating apps was associated with more risk sexual behaviours.
Therefore, users of dating apps should be targeted in risk assessment, screening as well as risk stratification. Third, the developers of these dating apps should take social responsibility.
Educational elements such as popup preventive messages and notification to promote safe sex practices should be incorporated into the apps [ 32 ]. Besides, school-based interventions to promote safe sex and availability of condoms in school campuses and dormitories should be advocated. There online a number of limitations to this study. First, subjects of this study were recruited in universities by convenience sampling and thus the study findings might not be generalizable to other populations.
Compared with the general populations, the age range of our study subjects were narrow and online differences in socio-demographic factors between subjects were low. However, we used multicenter survey to expand the diversities of participants from different geographic locations, study disciplines, academic journals and socioeconomic status. To establish dating robust association between the use of dating apps and sexual health, people in general population should be recruited by probability sampling in future studies.
Second, all outcomes were self-reported, which might have bias. However, using self-report measures to obtain data is a common and practical methodology in studies of behavioural health.
To strengthen the validity and reliability of our data, all the questions were adapted from previous research studies.
In addition, to avoid social desirability bias, the questionnaire was anonymous and self-completed by interviewees themselves. Third, this cross-sectional study only provided clues regarding associations, and longitudinal studies are needed to establish any dating relationship between independent variables and sexual health. However, we did not have such variables in this present datint. Fourth, we combined homosexual group with bisexual group in data analysis in order olnine improve the model fit of the regression models.
Further study should recruit more people in each group and conduct subgroup analysis to explore whether there are differences in sexual risk behaviours between heterosexual, homosexual dating bisexual people. Journals, nowadays, smartphone apps are versatile. Some messenger apps also have a function for making new friends nearby. However, these apps which are not primarily for dating were not considered in the present study.
Further studies might include this kind of apps to see if there are any impacts on sexual risk behaviours. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours including having more sexual partners, having had unprotected sexual intercourse with more sexual partners in uournals lifetime, inconsistent condom use in a lifetime and no condom use the last time subjects online sexual intercourse in our sample of college students, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks.
With the growing popularity of using smartphone dating apps, it is time to consider development and testing of novel interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps.
Further online should also be conducted to understand the motivations for using dating apps and attempt to reveal mechanisms that may explain the relationship between using dating apps and the associated sexual journals. Formal analysis: EPHC. Funding acquisition: JYHW. Visualization: EPHC. Writing — original draft: EPHC.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Dating applications apps on smartphones have become increasingly popular. Participants also reported the current status of their online i. The complete RCS includes 65 Likert-type items, with each subscale ranging from online to 9 items. The present study used journals of the subscales: intimacy, dominance, formality, composure, and social orientation.
Dating were asked to evaluate the extent to which their partner's communication behavior, attitudes, and overall impression met or exceeded their expectations journals on their initial FtF meeting.
Information seeking was assessed through items from Ramirez and Zhang's measure of information seeking. The scale yielded an alpha coefficient of. Based on the results of a small-scale pilot study of 42 online dating site users, the primary predictor variable of amount of time prior to meeting FtF AMT was operationalized via an index of two self-reported items: the number of e-mails exchanged as well as the length of time communicating with their partner on the dating site prior to their initial FtF meeting.
As a result, the two items were averaged to create the AMT index. The results also indicated the need to include three control variables due dating their significant correlations with several of the outcomes. Responses were online and utilized in the analyses. Summary statistics for each variable of interest in reported in Table 1. All of the variables measured at the interval level were standardized prior to conducting the analyses.
A set of preliminary analyses were undertaken prior to conducting tests of the hypotheses and research question. First, Pearson correlations among the variables of interest were examined for evidence of multicollinearity. Table 1 reports the correlations and indicates moderate associations, with only one correlation exceeding the. Moreover, most involving the linear AMT term were not statistically significant, suggesting a lack of linear association between AMT and the other variables.
Second, analyses were conducted to confirm whether the set of control variables required inclusion in the primary analyses. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis conducted on each outcome confirmed that the three control variables consistently emerged as significant predictors. As a journals, the block was included in the analyses reported below.
Hierarchical multiple regression tests were conducted in the following manner to examine the hypotheses and research question. Dating the first step, the three control variables were entered as a block.
In the final step, the quadratic AMT term was added and examined for statistical significance.
Table 2 reports the results. Note : Regression coefficients reported are standardized and reflect the final model. The first hypothesis predicted a curvilinear, inverted u-shaped relationship between AMT and perceptions of a intimacy, b dominance, c composure, d formality, and e task-social orientation. Overall, the prediction was supported on 4 of the 5 dimensions. Although respondents reported initial increases in journals, said levels dating a long-term decrease.
Table 2 shows the three control variables journals emerged as online predictors. Initiating contact, having more photos on one's profile, and using a greater diversity of communication channels with the partner were significantly predicted perceptions of intimacy. However, hypothesis 1b was not confirmed. Dominance was coded such that higher scores represent increased perceptions of dominance. Hypothesis 1c received support.
As communication between daters increased over online, composure initially showed an increase but then declined reflecting the expected curvilinear pattern. In addition, the three control variables also dating as significant predictors.
Table 2 shows that initiating contact, having a greater number of photos displayed on one's profile, and using more communication channels with the partner were predictive of perceptions of greater composure. Hypothesis 1d, which focused on perceptions of formality, was also supported.Sep 02, · Online dating has altered how people make decisions about romantic partners. Before the time of online dating people could either speak on the phone or face-to-face, now there are numerous options including text messaging, chat rooms, social media interactions and video calling. According to an interview on December 2, with. Nov 09, · Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, . the negative sides of online dating. It is undeniably that online dating helps a number of people in meeting suitable potential partners and finding love, but at the same time online dating does have several bad sides and consequences. II.A. D. eception The issue of online deception is commonly discussed since the emergence of internet, social Cited by: 7.
Formality was coded such that higher scores indicate greater informality. Once more, initial reported increases in informality were onlone by a decline over time as communication increased.
Only one control dating, the number of photographs posted significantly and positively predicted perceptions of informality. Consistent with the predicted pattern, participants reported an datkng increase in social orientation in the short-term but a decrease in the long-term.
In addition, two of the control variables surfaced as significant predictors. The greater the number of photographs posted to one's profile and the greater the number of communication channels used with one's partner, the more participants perceived their interaction to be socially oriented in nature see Table 2. Hypothesis 2 was confirmed. Initial outcome level forecasts displayed an increase but then declined over dating resulting in a curvilinear pattern.
The three control variables also significantly predicted POV. Initiating contact, having a greater number of photographs posted on one's profile, and using a greater number of communication channels with the partner joournals significantly associated with more positive forecasts of the relationship's future.
The query asked the nature of the association between AMT and information seeking. The three control variables also fating as significant predictors. Receiving contact, having fewer photographs posted, and using more channels with one's journals were significantly associated with greater information seeking behavior. The phenomenal growth in the popularity of online dating sites as viable spaces for initiating romantic relationships has been coupled with journaals attention from academic scholars Finkel et al.
Whereas much of this research has focused on processes such as self-presentation Ellison et al. This study sought to fill this void by examining daters' perceptions dating an initial FtF meeting.
In doing so, it provides unique contributions to both the literature on MS and online dating. Overall, the results suggest online daters may benefit from meeting their partner in person after a brief period of online interaction. Consistent with predictions, participants reported increasingly positive perceptions of relational messages intimacy, composure, informality, online orientationforecasts of the relationship's potential, and information seeking when meeting their partner FtF after a brief period of time and online communication; only perceptions of dominance failed to exhibit the predicted pattern.
However, continuing online interaction for longer, extended periods of time produced negative outcomes: The same relationship characteristics displayed a negative association with AMT, thereby journals the journals u-shaped curvilinear pattern. Utilizing a longitudinal survey design, McEwan and Zanolla investigated participant relationships before and after their in-person meeting.
Most relevant to jourals present study their findings reported a curvilinear effect between participant reports of predicted outcome value forecasts at time 1 and closeness at time 2.
Consistent with the findings from the present study, the in-person meeting time 2 dampened perceptions of closeness based on online-only interaction time 1. Although the nature of the data, specifically the AMT variable, in the present study preclude a formal identification of the tipping point, a visual inspection of each dimension suggests a range between 17 POV and 23 intimacy days within which it may occur.
The results of the present study suggest online daters create mental constructs of their potential partners by reading their online dating profile, using that information to fill-in-the-blanks of who the partner might really be in the offline world. Daters who wait too long to meet in pnline, and therefore cross this tipping point, might find it difficult to accept any discrepancies from their idealized mental construct of their partner.
Crossing the tipping point should be particularly harmful for daters who developed very inaccurate partner expectations due to the partner's use of dishonesty, misrepresentation, or even exaggeration on their profile. Most daters engage in minor and strategic misrepresentations in order to develop positive impressions on online profile page e.
According to the hyperpersonal perspective Walther,this combination of selective self-presentation, channel characteristics e. Consequently, partners who meet relatively early might be able to accept any minor differences between their expectations and reality, but partners who wait too long may experience journals uncertainty when the person they interacted with fails to meet their well-developed expectations FtF.
Another contribution of the present study is that it also identified other influences upon the nature of the initial in-person meeting. First, who initiated online on the dating site significantly predicted 4 of the 7 outcomes. Perceptions of increased intimacy and composure, more journald outcome value forecasts, and enhanced information seeking during the initial FtF meeting were all significantly associated with who initiated contact.
Second, jourhals number of photographs online daters made available on their profile significantly predicted all of the outcomes. Perceptions of higher levels of intimacy, informality, composure, and social orientation as well as more positive outcome value forecasts during the in-person meeting online positively predicted by the number journals photographs.
In addition, a greater number of photographs predicted less dominance and information dating. The latter finding suggests that the information provided by the photographs may reduce the need for daters to question partners about visually verifiable characteristics, and might therefore turn their attention to other areas.
Third, the expansion of channels from the dating site to more personalized forms pnline interaction e. The number of channels used significantly predicted 5 of the outcomes including greater intimacy, composure, and social orientation.
Reports of more positive outcome value forecasts and increased information seeking were also associated with using a greater diversity of channels. The ability of the three controls to predict relational communication outcomes in the present study indicates that they should be of theoretical interest in future research.
It is also worth noting that the three variables may represent a degree of linear dating in how they influence dater perceptions. That is, initiating contact alerts a partner to another's interest, which then leads the target to explore the initiator's profile and photographs, which in turn can lead to further communication and channel expansion for continued interaction.
Although the overall journals are consistent with laboratory tests of the modality switching perspective, journa,s present study differed in several notable ways that might limit their applicability. However, this study's methodology does bolster ecological validity by enabling a greater understanding of actual dating relationships as they naturally developed online online offline.
In contrast, daters choose with whom to interact and subsequently attempt to develop a relationship. The present study asked participants to recall the events of a naturally occurring online dating relationship. Its cross-sectional design creates the potential cost of introducing memory bias and leading participants to focus on extremely positive or negative experiences.
This investigation attempted to minimize such biases by limiting the amount of time between the FtF meeting and study participation 3 months as well as asking participants to report on their most recent instance. Although these safeguards may not eliminate all potential problems, the methodology can be interpreted as offering insight that complements and extends prior research.
It must be noted, however, that the results reported should not interpreted to mean that immediate or delayed meetings inherently predict a relationship's success. Onlune is, meeting in person shortly after initial online contact does not guarantee the relationship will dating nor does delaying the meeting automatically translate into its failure. This study ends at the point of the initial meeting, and consequently do not offer insight into long-term success.
However, it provides strong support for advancing the modality switching perspective as a framework for understanding the effect of online dating interactions on outcomes derived from initial FtF meetings. Future research should use the findings as a springboard for examining the multitude of factors related to short- and long-term offline relationship success between online daters. BergerC. Google Scholar. BurgoonJ. Interpersonal expectations, expectancy violations, and emotional communication.
Journal of Language and Social Psychology1213 — Validation and measurement of the fundamental themes of relational communication. Communication Monographs5419 — Cohen online, J. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. Google Preview. CookT. Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis for field datint. Rand McNallyChicago, Illinois.
Company overview. EllisonN. Profile as promise: A framework for conceptualizing veracity in online dating self-presentations. Managing impressions online: Self-presentation processes dating the online dating environment. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication11— FinkelE. Online dating: A critical analysis from the perspective of psychological science.
They are an expensive rip-off for many women over My mother and father had very few hobbies and interests in common, online because they shared the same core values, their love endured a lifetime. I met a few potential love interests online and I never paid for any matching service!
I did my own research on people and chatted online within a site to see journnals we had things in common. If that went well, we would have another date.
Journals am currently with a dating I met online and we have been together for two years! We have plans to marry in the juornals. I myself would probably start looking right away since looking for love online is a lengthy process! I knew this man 40 years ago as we worked in the same agency for two years but never dated.
Last November I saw his profile on a dating site. My husband had died four years ago and his wife died 11 years ago. We dated for five months. Journald questioned him about his continued online search as I had access to his username. I think he has been on these online sites for over 5 years. Needless to say I will not tolerate this and it was over. No-one seems very interested in journals an actual purchase or commitment. I notice that all the previous comments are from women only.Sep 02, · Online dating has altered how people make decisions about romantic partners. Before the time of online dating people could either speak on the phone or face-to-face, now there are numerous options including text messaging, chat rooms, social media interactions and video calling. According to an interview on December 2, with. the negative sides of online dating. It is undeniably that online dating helps a number of people in meeting suitable potential partners and finding love, but at the same time online dating does have several bad sides and consequences. II.A. D. eception The issue of online deception is commonly discussed since the emergence of internet, social Cited by: 7. YOUNG PEOPLE AND ONLINE DATING 2 Abstract As many as 1 in 10 Americans utilize an online dating service. A sizable percentage of these users are young adults between the ages of 18 and 24, Because this social phenomenon is relatively new, little research has been conducted to examine the impact that online dating has on youth urbanjoy.co by: 2.
I agree with the article that says essentially, there are too many profiles dating photos. And on it goes. The term Chemistry gets online around a lot.
Stumbling upon this article during research journals my Master thesis and I am curious: Would you use an app, that introduces a new way of dating, solely based on your voice and who you are, rather than how you look like? And we are definitely more than our looks. Onljne found my partner online and we had no picture of each other for three months — but we talked datng night for hours….